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Closamectin solution for injection is used in the treatment and control of mixed trematode (fluke) and nematode or arthropod infestations due to roundworms, lungworms, eye worms, warbles, mites and lice. Closamectin solution for injection uses a unique mixture of ivermectin (for the treatment of lice, worms and ticks) and closantel (for the treatment of liver fluke and gastrointestinal roundworms). Closamectin solution for injection is the only combined injection that has a high efficiency rate against late immature and mature fluke.
Active Ingredient: Ivermectin, Closantle
Target Species: Cattle, sheep
Administration Method: Subcutaneous Injection (under the skin)
Treats and Controls: Gastro-intestinal worm, lungworm,eye worms, warbles, lice, mange mites, imature and mature fluke
Withdrawal Time:49 days for cattle intended for meat and offal, not suitable for cattle producing milk for human consumption. 28 days for sheep intended for meat and offal, not suitable for sheep producing milk for human consumption.
Dosage for cattle:1 ml per 25 kg of bodyweight.
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Dosage for sheep:0.5 ml per 12.5 kg of bodyweight.
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Always read the label and all enclosed information for Closamectin before administering to animals!
Key Features of Closamictin Injection.
The dangers of having infected cattle:
Liver Fluke:Beef cattle infected with liver fluke can suffer from weight gain reductions of between 0.5 - 1.6 kg per week. This makes the prevention of liver fluke a very high priority to the farmer.
External Parasites: Another factor that can negatively effect cattles' performance is ectoparasites. Cattle infected with lice will become irritated, which can cause a loss of appetite. Studies have shown that infected cattles' food intake can reduce by up to 20%
Worm Burdens. One of the highest contributors to productivity loss in cattle is worm burdens. Worms will not only cause poor health for the cattle but can also cause high costs for the farmer. An outbreak of gastrointestinal worms can cost a farmer up to €120 per head and an outbreak of lungworm can cost a farmer up to €60 per head.
Closamectin Treatment Regime
It is recommended that treating beef cattle at least twice a year is the most effective way of controlling the fluke problem on your farm.
Housing: Cattle should be treated at the time of housing or just after housing. A second treatment may be needed to treat fluke if the cattle are housed early or if the area is highly susceptible to contamination.
Turnout:Cattle should be treated at 8 to 10 weeks after turnout. This treatment will kill fluke that have been picked up by cattle as soon as they were turned out. This treatment will also help reduce the reinfection of pastures.
Outwintering: For cattle who are outwintered a treatment should be given in the late autumn to early winter. A second treatment may be needed in January/February.
Bought in Cattle: All bought in livestock should be treated and quarantined for at least 48 hours. This will help protect your herd from infections introduced from new cattle.
This product is only licensed for sale within the Republic of Ireland
Health Products Regulatory Authority
Summary of Product Characteristics
1 NAME OF THE VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Closamectin Solution for Injection for Cattle and Sheep
2 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Each ml contains:
Ivermectin 5 mg
Closantel (as Closantel Sodium Dihydrate) 125 mg
Sodium Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate 5 mg
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3 PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Solution for injection.
A clear amber solution free from visible particles.
4 CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1 Target Species
Cattle and Sheep.
4.2 Indications for use, specifying the target species
For the treatment of mixed trematode (fluke) and nematode or arthropod infestations due to gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, eyeworms, warbles, mites and lice of cattle.
Ostertagia ostertagi (including inhibited larval stages),
Ostertagia lyrata (adult),
Haemonchus placei (adult and immature),
Trichostrongylus axei (adult and immature),
Trichostrongylus colubriformis (adult and immature),
Cooperia oncophora (adult and immature),
Cooperia punctata (adult and immature),
Cooperia pectinata (adult and immature),
Oesophagostomum radiatum (adult and immature),
Nematodirus helvetianus (adult),
Nematodirus spathiger (adult),
Strongyloides papillosus (adult),
Bunostomum phlebotomum (adult and immature),
Toxocara vitulorum (adult),
Dictyocaulus viviparus (adult and 4th stage larvae)
Liver Fluke (trematodes)
Treatment of fluke at 12 weeks (mature) >99% efficacy.
Treatment of fluke from 7 weeks (late immature) >90% efficacy
Cattle grubs (parasitic stages)
Psoroptes ovis (synP communis varbovis),
Sarcoptes scabiei var bovis
Closamectin Injection may also be used as an aid in the control of the
biting louse Damalinia bovis and
the mange miteChorioptes bovis, but complete elimination may not occur.
Persistent activity in cattle
When cattle have to graze on pasture contaminated with infective larvae of cattle nematodes, treatment with Closamectin Injection at the recommended dose rate of 200 µg ivermectin per kg bodyweight and 5 mg closantel per kg bodyweight controls re-infection with:
Dictyocaulus viviparus Up to 21 days
Ostertagia ostertagi Up to 21 days
Oesophagostomum radiatum Up to 21 days
Cooperia spp Up to 14 days
Trichostrongylus axei Up to 14 days
Haemonchus placei Up to 14 days
For the treatment of mixed trematode (fluke) and nematode or arthropod infestations due to gastrointestinal roundworms, trematodes, lungworms, nasal bots and mites of sheep.
Ostertagia circumcincta (including inhibited L4),
Ostertagia trifurcata (adult and L4),
Haemonchus contortus (including inhibited L4),
Trichostrongylus axei (adult),
Trichostrongylus colubriformis (adult and L4),
T. vitrinus(adult) Cooperia curticei (adult and L4),
Oesophagostomum columbianum (adult and L4),
O. venulosum (adult) Chabertia ovina (adult and L4)
Nematodirus filicollis (adult and L4),
Trichurisovis (adult). [L4 = fourth stage larvae]
Dictyocaulus filaria (adult and 4thstage larvae)
Protostrongylus rufescens (adult)
Liver Fluke (trematodes)
Treatment of fluke at 12 weeks (mature) >95% efficacy.
Treatment of fluke at 7 weeks (late immature) 100% efficacy.
Psoroptes ovis (Treatment requires a second injection of an ivermectin-only containing product 7 days later. See section 4.4 and 4.9).
Benzimidazole – resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta are also controlled.
Closamectin Injection is not for intravenous or intramuscular use.
Avermectins may not be well tolerated in all non-target species (cases of intolerance with fatal outcome are reported in dogs – especially Collies, Old English Sheepdogs and related breeds or crosses, and also in turtles/tortoises).
Do not use in cases of known hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients.
4.4 Special warnings for each target species
Care should be taken to avoid the following practices because they increase the risk of development of resistance and could ultimately result in ineffective therapy:
- Too frequent and repeated use of anthelmintics from the same class, over an extended period of time.
- Underdosing which may be due to underestimation of bodyweight, misadministration of the product, or lack of calibration of the dosing device.
Suspected clinical cases of resistance to anthelmintics should be further investigated using appropriate tests (e.g. Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test). Where the results of the tests strongly suggest resistance to a particular anthelmintic, an anthelmintic belonging to another pharmacological class and having a different mode of action should be used.
Resistance to ivermectin has been reported in Cooperia spp., in cattle.
Therefore the use of this product should be based on local epidemiological information about the susceptibility of the Cooperia spp., and recommendations on how to limit further selection for resistance to anthelmintics.
Resistance to ivermectin and closantel has been reported in Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Therefore the use of this product should be based on local epidemiological information about the susceptibility of the Haemonchus contortus and recommendations on how to limit further selection for resistance to anthelmintics.
treatment of psoroptic mange (sheep scab) with one injection of this product will not be effective in eliminating all the mites. A suitable ivermectin–only injectable product must be administered seven days after the treatment with this product to treat clinical signs and to eliminate the mites.
Sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis) is an extremely contagious external parasite of sheep.
To ensure complete control great care must be taken to avoid re-infestation, as mites may be viable for up to 15 days off the sheep.
It is important that all sheep which have been in contact with infected sheep are treated with an appropriate product. Contact between treated, infected and untreated flocks must be avoided until at least seven days after treatment.
4.5 Special precautions for use
(i) Special precautions for use in animals
(ii) Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the medical veterinary product to animals
Do not smoke, eat or drink while handling the product.
Avoid direct contact of the product with the skin. In case of spillage onto the skin rinse immediately with fresh water. Wash hands after use.
Take care to avoid self-injection. Inadvertent self-injection may result in local irritation and/or pain at the injection site. In case of accidental self-injection, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet to the physician.
(iii) Other Precautions
Ivermectin is very toxic to aquatic organisms and dung insects. Treated cattle should not have direct access to ponds, streams or ditches for 14 days after treatment. Long term effects on dung insects caused by continuous or repeated use cannot be excluded. Therefore repeated treatment of animals on a pasture with an ivermectin-containing product within a season should only be given in the absence of alternative treatments or approaches to maintain animal/flock health, as advised by a veterinarian.
4.6 Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
Transitory discomfort has been observed in some cattle following subcutaneous administration. Tissue swellings at the injection site are common up to 48 hours after injection which resolve thereafter without treatment. Hardness on palpation may be observed up to 7 days following administration.
Transitory swelling has occasionally been observed in sheep at the injection site. Occasionally this swelling is accompanied by pain and discomfort. This swelling completely resolves within 14 days of treatment.
4.7 Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
Closamectin Injection can be administered to cattle and sheep at any stage of pregnancy or lactation provided that the milk is not intended for human consumption.
4.8 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interactions Do not administer concomitantly with chlorinated compounds. The effects of GABA agonists are increased by ivermectin. Please refer to section 4.3 of the SPC.
4.9 Amounts to be administered and administration route
Closamectin Injection should be administered at a dosage rate of 200 microgram ivermectin per kg bodyweight and 5 mg closantel per kg bodyweight (1 ml per 25 kg).
It should only be injected subcutaneously into the neck.
A maximum dose of 10 ml should be administered at any one site with any residual volume administered at another site in the neck.
A sterile 16-gauge, one-inch needle is recommended.
For the treatment and control of sheep scab an injection of Closamectin
Injection for Sheep may be administered but must be followed with a second injection of an ivermectin only product seven days after the initial injection to treat clinical signs of scab and to eliminate mites.
This injection should be administered at the other side of the neck.
This product does not contain an antimicrobial preservative.
Swab septum before removing each dose.
Use a dry sterile needle and syringe.
For 250 ml and 500 ml pack sizes, use of a multiple dose syringe is recommended.
To refill the syringe, use of a draw-off needle is recommended to avoid excessive broaching of the stopper.
Do not exceed 40 broachings per vial.
If more than 40 broachings are required, use of a draw off needle is recommended.
The timing for treatment should be based on epidemiological factors and should be customised for each individual farm.
As with other anthelmintics, veterinary advice should be sought on appropriate dosing programmes and stock management to achieve adequate parasite control and reduce the likelihood of resistance developing.
To ensure administration of a correct dose, bodyweight should be determined as accurately as possible; accuracy of the dosing device should be checked.
If animals are to be treated collectively rather than individually they should be grouped according to their bodyweight and dosed accordingly, in order to avoid under- or over-dosing.
4.10 Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
Single doses of 4.0 mg/kg ivermectin (20 times the recommended dosage) administered subcutaneously, result in ataxia and depression.
No antidote has been identified.
Symptomatic treatment may be beneficial.
Closantel like other salicylanilides is a potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation and the safety index is not as high as is the case of many other anthelmintics.
However where used as directed there are unlikely to be any untoward effects.
Signs of overdosage can include loss of appetite, decreased vision, loose faeces and increased frequency of defaecation.
High doses may cause blindness, hyperventilation, hyperthermia, general weakness, inco-ordination, convulsions, tachycardia and in extreme cases death.
Treatment of overdosage is symptomatic as no antidote has been identified.
Oral closantel doses in excess of 82.5 mg/kg in cattle may cause blindness, hyperventilation, hyperthermia, general weakness, in-coordination, convulsions, tachycardia and in extreme cases death.
4.11 Withdrawal period(s)
Meat and offal: 49 days.
Milk: Not authorised for use in cattle producing milk for human consumption including during the dry period.
Do not use during the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers which are intended to produce milk for human consumption
Meat and offal: 28 days.
Milk: Not authorised for use in ewes producing milk for human consumption including during the dry period.
Do not use within 1 year prior to the first lambing in ewes intended to produce milk for human consumption.
5 PHARMACOLOGICAL or IMMUNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Ivermectin is an endectocide with activity against a wide range of internal and external parasites.
Ivermectin is a macrocylic lactone and acts by inhibiting nerve impulses.
It binds selectively and with high affinity to glutamate-gated chloride ion channels which occur in invertebrate nerve and muscle cells. This leads to an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane to chloride ions with hyperpolarization of the nerve or muscle cell, resulting in paralysis and death of the relevant parasites.
Compounds of this class may also interact with other ligand-gated chloride channels, such as those gated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
The margin of safety for compounds of this class is attributable to the fact that mammals do not have glutamate-gated chloride channels.
The macrocylic lactones have a low affinity for other mammalian ligand-gated chloride channels and they do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier.
Closantel is a member of the salicylanilide class of anthelmintics.
Salicylanilides are hydrogen (proton)
ionophores (referred to as oxidative phosphorylase uncouplers.)
The chemical structure of salicylanilides illustrate the possession of a detachable proton.
This type of molecule is lipophilic and is known to shuttle protons across membranes, in particular the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Closantel acts by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation.
Closantel is a parasiticide with flukicide activity and efficacy against certain other helminths and arthropods. Treatment with Closamectin when fluke are five weeks and greater has been shown to reduce subsequent reproductive capacity and egg shedding.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic particulars
After subcutaneous administration of Closamectin
Injection to cattle at a dose rate of 200 microgram ivermectin per kg and 5 mg closantel per kg the following parameters were observed:
Ivermectin Cmax of 57.3 ng/ml and AUC of 7106 ng.hr/ml;
Closantel Cmax of 63.4 microgram/ml and AUC of 21996 microgram.hr/ml.
Ivermectin is only partially metabolised.
In cattle, only about 1-2% is excreted in the urine the remainder is excreted in the faeces, approximately 60 % of which is excreted as unaltered drug. The remainder is excreted as metabolites or degradation products. Salicylanilides are poorly metabolised and are excreted mainly unchanged. About 90 % of closantel is excreted unchanged in the faeces and urine in cattle.
Sheep: After subcutaneous administration of Closamectin Injection to sheep at a dose rate of 200 microgram ivermectin per kg and 5 mg closantel per kg the following parameters were observed: Ivermectin Cmax of 24.52 ng/ml and AUC of 2082.93 ng.h/ml; Closantel Cmax of 70.4 microgram/ml and AUC of 41043 microgram.h/ml.
Ivermectin binds extensively to plasma proteins.
Due to its high lipophilic nature, ivermectin is extensively distributed.
It tends to accumulate in fat tissue, which acts as a drug reservoir and the highest levels of ivermectin are found in liver and fat.
Ivermectin is only partially metabolised. Ivermectin is mainly eliminated in the faeces as unaltered drug and faecal excretion accounts for 90 % of the dose administered with <2 % of the dose excreted in urine.
Ivermectin is also excreted by the mammary gland.
Salicylanilides are poorly metabolised and are excreted mainly unchanged.
The main excretion route is the faeces via the bile.
Closantel is extensively bound to plasma proteins, almost exclusively to albumin.
The distribution to tissues is poor. Closantel has a long elimination half life.
6.1 List of excipients
Sodium Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate
6.2 Major incompatibilities
In the absence of compatibility studies, this veterinary medicinal product must not be mixed with other veterinary medicinal products.
Shelf-life of the veterinary product as packaged for sale: 18 months.
Shelf-life after first opening of immediate packaging: 28 days.
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C.
Protect from light.
Discard unused material.
6.5 Nature and composition of immediate packaging
100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml multidose vials and aluminium caps complete with bromobutyl bungs and aluminium seals.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for the disposal of unused veterinary medicinal products or waste materials derived from the use of such products
EXTREMELY DANGEROUS to fish and aquatic life.
Do not contaminate surface waters or ditches with the product or used container.
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7 MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Norbrook Laboratories (Ireland) Limited
Rossmore Industrial Estate
8 MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
9 DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION
Date of first authorisation: 09 November 2007
Date of last renewal: 27 April 2012
10 DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
Injectables should be given according to the manufacturer’s instructions at the recommended injection site.
• Always use a clean, sterile syringe and needle. If using a multiple injection gun, ensure the needle is disinfected between injections, e.g. with an automatic sterilisation system.
• If the site to be injected is dirty, clean the skin and swab with an alcohol-impregnated wipe or cotton wool.
• Before injecting, check the expiry date and read the instructions of the product to be used. Some products need to be shaken before use.
• Use the correct-sized needle according to the size of the animal and site of injection.
• Ensure the animal is adequately restrained before attempting the injection.
• Take care to ensure it is given subcutaneously and not intramuscularly. Raise a fold of skin at the injection site (mainly neck but some are ear) recommended by the product manufacturer and inject carefully into the space created.
• If a large dose is to be delivered, it may be advisable to split the dose between two injection sites. After the injection, briefly massage the site to improve the dispersal of the injected material.
• Dispose of the needle and syringe in appropriate clinical waste and sharps containers.
Sheep Subcutaneous injections
Subcutaneous injections need to be administered with care to ensure the product is placed under the skin and not into the fleece or muscle.
The sheep needs to be well restrained, and the skin ‘tented’ away from the underlying muscle.
The preferred injection site is 10–15 cm (4–6 inches) below the ear on the side of the neck (see diagram below). Usually a 1.6 cm (5/8 inch) needle is ideal.
After administration, the site should be gently massaged.
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